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    Pertussis Vaccine

        Animal data indicated immunization starting after 2 months of life with an aluminum based pertussis vaccine was associated with an 3 fold increase in the cumulative incidence of diabetes in NOD mice (Classen,JB, 1996c). Rises in the incidence of IDDM have also been seen following administration of a similar aluminum based whole cell pertussis vaccine in humans and decreases in the incidence of IDDM have also occurred during the pertussis vaccine scare. In Finland the incidence of IDDM in children under age 5 rose 64% after the pertussis vaccine was made more antigenic (Classen,DC & Classen, 1997). In the UK the incidence of IDDM tripled (Gardner, Bingley, Sawtellet al.1997) in children under 5 in the as the immunization rates with the pertussis vaccine rose in the UK following the pertussis vaccine scare (Wrench, McWhirter & Pearson, 1991). The incidence of IDDM in the US, Allegheny county registry (Dokheel, 1993), dropped 50% during the pertussis vaccine scare, 1975-1979, and rose again following the scare.

        The incidence of IDDM in Sweden (Heijbel, Chen & Dahlquist, 1997) did not decline following the discontinuation of an plain pertussis vaccine however this can be explained by an weak effect of whole cell bacterial vaccines lacking aluminum on IDDM and by the fact that aluminum was added to the DT vaccine at the same time the plain pertussis vaccine was being discontinued so the effects the two changes on IDDM may have counteracted each other (Heijbel, Chen & Dahlquist, 1997). This is supported by the fact that the even higher doses of the plain plague vaccine had a weak effect on diabetes in NOD mice compared to lower doses of the alum based anthrax vaccine. Additional work with aluminum (Ramiya, Lan, Wasserfallet al.1997) shows that antigens absorbed with alum have an greater affect on diabetes in NOD mice than plain antigens.