Hemophilus Influenza B Vaccine
1. The graph below shows that the annual incidence of diabetes rose drastically after hemophilus immunization began in Finland.
2. The graph below shows that the annual incidence of diabetes rose drastically after hemophilus immunization began in Pittsburgh.
3. The graph below shows that the annual incidence of diabetes rose in England after the hemophilus vaccine became widely utilized in the UK (Reference British Medical Journal 315:713-716, 1997). The hemophilus vaccine was started in October of 1992 in most regions however large studies were conducted in some regions about 2 years earlier.
The incidence of IDDM rose drastically in Finland after immunization with the Hemophilus vaccine began. A trial of Hemophilus influenza conjugate vaccine was initiated in January 1986 and included 114,000 children born between October 1,1985 and August 31,1987. Based on the results of the trial the Hemophilus influenza vaccine became part of the standard vaccine schedule in Finland starting in January of 1988 (Eskola, Kayhty, Takalaet al.1990). The widespread use of the Hemophilus influenza vaccine in 1986 was followed by a 62% rise (16 cases/100,000 children to 29.2 cases/100,000) in the incidence of diabetes in the 0-4 age group between the years 1980-1982 and 1990-1992 (Tuomilehto, Virtala, Karvonenet al.1995; Classen,DC & Classen, 1997). The cumulative incidence of IDDM in 0-4 year olds in Finland rose 65 cases/100,000 between 1980-1982 and 1990-1992 as calculated from the rise in the annual incidence in children under 5 from 16 cases/100,000 to 29.2 cases/100,000 immunized: ((29.2-16)x5)). An extra 50 cases of IDDM/100,000 children immunized represents about an extra 2,000 cases of IDDM a year in the US based on an annual birth cohort of 4 million children.
Drastic rises in the incidence of IDDM have also been reported in the US and the UK after the introduction of the HiB vaccine. An epidemic of diabetes in the 0-4 age group occurred during the years 1985-1989 in Allegheny county (Dokheel, 1993) at a time when the Hemophilus influenza vaccine was being incorporated into the immunization schedule. The FDA approved the Hemophilus influenza polysaccharide vaccine in 1985 and the conjugated vaccine in 1987. The vaccine was widely administered to children in Allegheny county, a study of its efficacy performed in Allegheny county showed that about 36% of children, chosen as controls, were immunized with the vaccine between August of 1985 and July of 1987 (Shapiro, Murphy, Waldet al.1988). The annual incidence of IDDM in 0-4 year olds living in Allegheny county rose 60% from the years 1980-1984 (10 cases/100,000) to 1985-1989 (16 cases/100,000). The incidence of diabetes in 0-4 year olds had been consistently below 10 cases/100,000 from 1965-1984 (Dokheel, 1993). The incidence of IDDM also rose 33% in the UK starting in 1994 (Gardner, Bingley, Sawtellet al.1997) following the introduction of the HiB vaccine in the UK in October, 1992 (Brewster, 1993). The incidence of IDDM in this age group is expected to rise even higher since the maximum effect of the HiB vaccine on IDDM is not seen until 4 years after immunization.